|Identify the presence of auto-PEEP by assessing a ventilator flow waveform.|
|Explain how manipulation of the inspiratory rise time can improve patient-ventilator synchrony during pressure-targeted ventilation|
|Discuss how the following laboratory tests provide valuable insight into the management of patients receiving mechanical ventilation:|
- arterial blood gases
- serum electrolytes
- thyroid function tests
- adrenal function tests
|Explain how to use a simple clinical calculation to determine whether acidosis is pure respiratory or mixed respiratory and metabolic.
|Review recent research findings supporting a restrictive fluid management protocol in patients with acute lung injury and ARDS.
|Explain why cardiac output often decreases during weaning when the patient has impaired left ventricular function.
|Discuss how the use of PEEP can contribute to pulmonary edema formation via its effects on the lymphatic system.
|Describe the role of inflammatory spread from the abdomen to the lungs via trans-diaphragmatic pathways in the lymphatic system.
|Describe the relationship between high FIO2ís, impaired innate immune response, and the risk and severity of infectious complications in critically ill patients.
|Discuss how hyperoxia interacts with mechanical stretch of the lung to augment ventilator-induced lung injury.
|Describe how resuming spontaneous ventilation during mechanical ventilation can assist in resolution of pulmonary edema.
|Identify assessment parameters useful in determining whether or not to extubate a patient following a successful spontaneous breathing trial.
|Explain why sepsis is the most serious and common impediment to weaning success. |
|Explain how ST segment monitoring can be useful when weaning the patient with an evolving or threatening myocardial infarction.
|Describe a practical approach to monitoring patients during a spontaneous breathing trial, using the following clinical parameters: |
- heart rate and blood pressure
- respiratory rate
- tidal volume
- rapid shallow breathing index
- minute ventilation recovery time
|Explain the etiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), including antibodies to leukocytes as well as biological response mediators present in stored blood.
|State the physiologic explanation concerning the relative risk of TRALI following transfusion of plasma verses transfusion of packed red blood cells.
|Discuss the role of restrictive transfusion practices in reducing the incidence of TRALI.